In German court, it’s never too late to agree to arbitration instead of litigation
If you find yourself entangled in German litigation (Zivilprozess), in particular business litigation, you and your opponent may not want to discuss your quarrels in the public eye. But can you still opt for arbitration even if the agreement between you and your German business partner does not contain an arbitration clause? Yes, you absolutely can. In fact, German civil procedure rules do encourage the parties to apply for the civil case to be transferred to a so called “Güterichter” (arbitration judge).
German civil courts have installed special chambers for such arbitration proceedings at all levels, see for example High Court Hannover. That way, the parties get a fully qualified and independent German judge as their mediator / arbitrator and they do not have to shop around. Costs for such a professional judge as arbitrator are also considerably lower than those of private arbitrators, because – from a cost perspective – the arbitration is still part of the official lawsuit. Therefore, arbitration proceedings before a German state judge (instead of a private arbitrator) have become increasing popular in Germany over the last 15 years and there are hardly any high profile business lawsuits in open German court anymore.
Arbitration before a professional German judge
The only requirement for this switch from German civil litigation (i.e. a classic civil lawsuit) to German arbitration before a professional judge is that the parties agree to it. Acording to section 278 para. (5) German Cicil Procedure Rules, the court shall suggest such arbitration to the parties. In fact, even if the German court does not initiate such a transfer, the parties to the legal dispute can “force” the court to transfer the case to the arbitration judge (Güterichter). From that moment on, the parties discuss the case in private, the hearings are no longer open to the public and everything that is discussed during the arbitration proceedings remains confidential. Not even the civil case judge (Richter im streitigen Verfahren) who has transferred the matter to the arbitration judge (Güterichter) will be informed about what went on in the arbitration proceedings. So even if the arbitration attempt ends up being unsuccessful, the parties go back to the initial judge and the original civil trial proceeds, neither party must fear to have disclosed any information detrimental to their German court case. Another advantage is that the parties can include additional aspects in an overall settlement agreement, i.e. they are not being bound by the core of the initial lawsuit.
Arbitration outside the German state court system
An alternative to having the civil lawsuit transferred to an arbitration judge (Güterichter) at the same German civil court, the parties can also opt for private arbitration. In that case, they choose their own arbitrator or arbitration panel and decide on their arbitration rules. The German civil court will then simply stay the proceedings according to section 278a para. (2) German Cicil Procedure Rules. In that case, costs will be higher, because such private arbitration is a separate proceeding and thus takes place outside the official cost schedule. Should the private arbitration attempt fail, each party can motion to the German civil court to resume the civil trial.
German Litigation vs. German Arbitration
In summary, switching from German civil litigation to arbitration (either before a German state judge or a private arbitrator) is usually a very good idea. Especially, if the parties do not wish the details of the civil dispute to become public. If the arbitration attempt fails, nothing is lost. Each party can simply state that they consider the arbitration unsuccessful. Then the regular civil lawsuit is continued and the German civil court will eventually issue a judgment.
More information on litigation and legal fees in Germany is available in these posts:
- German Litigation Experts explain Civil Procedure Rules
- How expensive is a German Lawsuit?
- Expert Reports on German Law
For legal advice on German civil procedure and how to successfully litigate in Germany, contact the international litigation experts and trial lawyers of GrafLegal.
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